Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996

Country: 
Date of assent: 
10 December 1996
Commencement date: 
04 February 1997


Chapter 2. Bill of Rights

16. Freedom of expression

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, which includes

a. freedom of the press and other media;
b. freedom to receive or impart information or ideas;
c. freedom of artistic creativity; and
d. academic freedom and freedom of scientific research.

2. The right in subsection (1) does not extend to

a. propaganda for war;
b. incitement of imminent violence; or
c. advocacy of hatred that is based on race, ethnicity, gender or religion, and that constitutes incitement to cause harm.

17. Assembly, demonstration, picket and petition

Everyone has the right, peacefully and unarmed, to assemble, to demonstrate, to picket and to present petitions.

18. Freedom of association

Everyone has the right to freedom of association.

19. Political rights

1. Every citizen is free to make political choices, which includes the right

a. to form a political party;
b. to participate in the activities of, or recruit members for, a political party; and
c. to campaign for a political party or cause.

2. Every citizen has the right to free, fair and regular elections for any legislative body established in terms of the Constitution.

3. Every adult citizen has the right

a. to vote in elections for any legislative body established in terms of the Constitution, and to do so in secret; and
b. to stand for public office and, if elected, to hold office.

20. Citizenship

No citizen may be deprived of citizenship.

21. Freedom of movement and residence

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement.
2. Everyone has the right to leave the Republic.
3. Every citizen has the right to enter, to remain in and to reside anywhere in, the Republic.
4. Every citizen has the right to a passport.